OVER LYME

De ziekte van Lyme is de snelst groeiende infectieziekte ter wereld. De Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie spreekt zelfs van een nieuwe epidemie.

Er is veel te zeggen over chronische Lyme. De klachten zijn zeer uiteenlopend. De diagnose is vaak moeilijk te stellen. Er zijn veel meningen over hoe de ziekte zich verspreidt.

Dat een tekenbeet Lyme veroorzaakt is genoegzaam bekend, maar er zijn ook nog andere dragers en het is zelfs overdraagbaar van mens op mens.

De vrees bestaat dat de veroorzaker van de ziekte, de Borrelia bacterie, ook de oorzaak is van andere ziekten, waardoor patiënten een verkeerde diagnose hebben gekregen.

Chronische Lyme

Chronische Lyme:
De ziekte van Lyme is een infectie ziekte die wordt veroorzaakt door de bacterie Borrelia. De ziekte van Lyme is een multisysteem ziekte en kan alles in het lichaam aantasten. Elke klacht kan worden veroorzaakt door de bacterie. Zie de klachtenlink.
Wat typisch is voor Lyme, is dat de klachten komen en gaan. Het ene moment zit u bij de huisarts met dit probleem, het andere moment weer met een andere klacht. Er is een cyclus van 4 weken waarin de klachten tijdens de 4e week toenemen.

Dr. Burrascano van ILADS: “It has been observed that symptoms will flare in cycles every four weeks. It is thought that this reflects the organism’s cell cycle, with the growth phase occurring once per month (intermittent growth is common in Borrelia species). As antibiotics will only kill bacteria during their growth phase, therapy is designed to bracket at least one whole generation cycle. This is why the minimum treatment duration should be at least four weeks. If the antibiotics are working, over time these flares will lessen in severity and duration. The very occurrence of ongoing monthly cycles indicates that living organisms are still present and that antibiotics should be continued”

De klachten van de ziekte van Lyme zijn: neurologische (zenuwstelsel/hersenen), dermatologische (huid), reumatologische (spieren en gewrichten), cardiologische (hart), oftalmologische (ogen) en psychiatrische klachten. Deze bacterie kan alles in het lichaam aantasten. Hoe ziek iemand wordt heeft te maken met de hoeveelheid bacteriën, hoelang ze al in het lijf aanwezig zijn/groeien, hoe sterk het immuunsysteem is, hoe goed men nog in staat is om te ontgiften en de hoeveelheid stress in het leven.

De co-infecties van Lyme:
Bij een tekenbeet loopt men niet alleen het risico om de ziekte van Lyme op te lopen maar ook andere tekenbeetziektes zoals: Bartonella, Babesia (Malaria-achtige), Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma, FSME, Yersinia (Familie van de Pest). Hoe meer co-infecties, hoe complexer de situatie en het klachtenpatroon. Meer lezen.

Lyme is de snelst groeiende infectieziekte ter wereld. Dagelijks komen er patiënten bij. De getallen moeten non-stop bijgesteld worden vanwege de vele missdiagnoses zoals: ME, CVS, Fibromyalgie, MS, ALS, Alzheimer, Parkinson, Reumatische artritis, Lupus, ADHD, ADD en Psychiatrische klachten.

De World Health Organisation zet de ziekte van Lyme onder de noemer “opkomende ziekten” naast Aids, Ebola, Sars, Hepatitis C. Deze opkomende ziekten vormen een belangrijke oorzaak van lijden en de dood en het opleggen van een enorme financiële last voor de samenleving meld de World Health Organisation.

De Borrelia bacterie:

De Borrelia bacterie behoort tot de spirocheten familie net zoals de veroorzaker van syfilis en de ziekte van Weil. Beide laatste ziekten zijn uiterst moeilijk te bestrijden. De Borrelia is de meest gecompliceerde en uitgekiende bacterie die we op het ogenblik kennen!!

De Borrelia heeft een uitgekiend systeem om te overleven, het is in staat de celwand te verliezen en over te gaan in L-vormen, cysten of granulen. Deze vormen hebben geen metabolisme dus nemen ook geen antibotica op.

Er is pas sprake van de ziekte van Lyme op het moment dat een besmetting zich uitbreidt tot een infectie. Bij iemand met een gezond immuunsysteem hebben de bacteriën weinig kans om zich uit te breiden, en tot een infectie uit te groeien. Bij een gezond immuunsysteem sterven de bacteriën af of blijven slechts in een onschadelijk klein aantal aanwezig. In dat geval kan het soms jaren later alsnog actief worden om zich dan wél tot een infectie te ontwikkelen.

Diagnose

Diagnose:
De ILADS richtlijn raadt aan om de behandeling in de eerste plaats aan te passen aan de klinische respons van de patiënt en niet uit te gaan van de arbitrair gekozen behandeling van 30 dagen. De ILADS richtlijn geeft ook aan dat een antibiotica-kuur niet gestopt moet worden wanneer er nog klachten zijn. Dit zou zelfs kunnen betekenen dat een patiënt maandenlang (soms jaren) antibiotica moet nemen.

De diagnose is officieel een klinische diagnose, maar in de praktijk wordt de diagnose meestal gebaseerd op bloedonderzoek naar antilichamen. Deze testen zijn helaas maar 34-59 % betrouwbaar waardoor patiënten jarenlang met verkeerde diagnoses en onverklaarbare klachten rondlopen.

Een besmetting met de Borrelia bacterie veroorzaakt meestal geen rode kring. Zonder rode kring kunt u ook besmet zijn.

Ahern, professor aan de SUNY, deed onlangs een onderzoek met behulp van een vragenlijst onder 600 mensen in Adirondack. Hij ontdekte dat maar 4 van de 12 patiënten (dus 33%) die van de arts de diagnose Lyme hadden gekregen, een huiduitslag hadden gerapporteerd. Het gaat hier om de bekende Erythema migrans, bulls-eye kring rondom de beet.

Onder de Lyme patiëntjes van Dr. Jones herinnerde alleen de helft van de kinderen een tekenbeet en minder dan 10% kreeg een rode kring.

Lyme patiënten wijken vaak uit naar het buitenland (op eigen kosten) omdat ze daar wel goede testen hebben. Het RIVM erkent dat de Lyme-testen niet betrouwbaar zijn, lees hierover ons artikel met link naar RIVM.

De standaard Lymetesten die worden gebruikt om de ziekte van Lyme aan te tonen dan wel uit te sluiten, zijn slechts tussen de 34 – 59% sensitief, waardoor veel Lyme-infecties worden gemist. Meer lezen (Engels).

Overdracht

Voordat u begint met lezen, is het belangrijk om te weten dat wanneer u drager bent van deze bacterie, dit niet betekent dat u meteen ziek wordt. Zolang uw immuunsysteem sterk blijft, is er niets aan de hand. Lida Mattman schreef dat zij tientallen jaren geleden moeite had met onbesmet bloed vinden voor onderzoeken. Dat betekend dat het gros van de mensen waarschijnlijk al drager is van deze bacterie.

Welke onderzoeken en bewijzen zijn er?

Laten we beginnen met de microbioloog Lida Mattman. Zij heeft de Borrelia 50 jaar (volgens wikipedia 70 jaar) bestudeerd en is genomineerd voor de Nobelprijs. Zij kent de Borrelia spirocheet beter dan wie dan ook. Haar levenswerk was onderzoek doen naar de spirocheet Borrelia. Zij bestudeerde de verschillende vormen en de overdracht van deze spirocheet.

Wikipedia: Een onderzoekster die jarenlang (meer dan 70 jaren) onderzoek heeft verricht naar de verschijning van deze bacterie-vormen is Lida H. Mattmann (USA). Zij schreef het boek Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth pathogens, waarvan in 2000 de derde editie is verschenen

Lida Mattman over de ziekte van Lyme


De bacteriën zitten in urine, moedermelk en traanvocht, sperma, bloed, plasma en het vocht in de hersenen en het ruggenmerg. Zij trof Borrelia aan in traanvocht, en legt uit hoe gemakkelijk Borrelia daardoor kan worden overgedragen via de handen

‘De microbioloog professor Lida Mattman isoleerde levende Borrelia spirocheten uit onder meer muggen, vlooien, mijt, semen, urine, bloed, plasma en liquor. Wat zij ontdekte dat de bacterie gevaarlijk maakt, is dat deze bacterie kan overleven en zich verspreiden zonder celwand (L vorm)

(Doordat L-vormen geen celwand bezitten zijn zij resistent tegen bètalactamantibiotica, zoals penicilline. Dit zijn antibiotica die inwerken op de celwand)

Er zijn al vele gezinnen bekend van wie alle leden (zoals bij Rosan) aan Borreliose lijden, maar waarvan ieder, vóór de constatering daarvan, een ander diagnostisch etiket droeg, met de daaruit volgende (niet effectvolle) medicatie. Hieruit blijkt dat wanneer één gezinslid Lyme heeft, het gehele gezin, moet worden behandeld.

Een paar punten om over na te denken:

  • Men adviseert om een teek NIET met de handen eruit te halen i.v.m. besmetting via de handen.
  • Complete gezinnen kregen Lyme, niet vanaf de geboorte! Dat kwam pas NADAT een gezinslid een teek had gehad, daarna werd het hele gezin ziek.
  • Vrienden van Lyme patiënten werden ook ziek meldde een ILADS arts. “In mijn omgeving wordt iedereen ziek, ze krijgen allemaal dezelfde klachten als ik” meldde een patiënt.

Social contact: A number of studies of unrelated people shows that mere proximity seems to be enough to transmit chronic disease. A case-controlled study of residents of the Isle of Man found that 40% of people with sarcoidosis had been in social contact with a person known to have the disease, compared with 1-2% of the control subjects. Another study reported three cases of sarcoidosis among ten firefighters who apprenticed together. Meer lezen (Engels).

Katten en honden dragen Lyme en Bartonella bij zich en dragen dit over op de mens. De mens heeft geen seks met ze, dit gaat via speeksel, bloed, ontlasting en traanvocht.

In een experiment met katten kon Burgess de katten oraal infecteren en via het traanvocht. Eveneens kon een orale infectie bij muizen door hem worden aangetoond en contact transmissie bij honden en muizen. Als orale infectie mogelijk is dan komt voedsel als vector eveneens in aanmerking. Lischer vond Borrelia burgdorferi in koemelk.

Stelletjes die veilig seks hebben gehad kregen toch Lyme!

Overdracht:
Lyme is seksueel overdraagbaar:

  1. Een ILADS arts doet Lyme testen door vocht weg te halen bij de vrouw. De Lyme bacterie is 100% bij vrouwen aanwezig, 50% bij de mannen.
  2. Er zijn onderzoeken waarbij borrelia spirocheten zijn gevonden in zowel sperma als vaginaal vocht en waarin koppels identieke stammen van borrelia in hun vocht hadden. Eén onderzoek daarvan werd gedaan met de Borrelia Hermsi stam. Deze stam komt weinig voor. Het bijzondere was dat beide partners deze Borrelia stam in het vocht en sperma hadden!

The culture of viable Borrelia spirochetes in genital secretions suggests that Lyme disease could be transmitted by intimate contact from person to person: http://f1000research.com/articles/3-309/v1

  1. Dr. Raphael Stricker: “It would certainly explains why the disease is so common,” Dr. Raphael Stricker, one of the researchers of the study stated. According to the CDC, there are 300,000 new cases of Lyme each year and this rate is rapidly increasing making it one of the most urgent epidemics today.
  2. Alan Macdonald, Burescano en Horowitz zeggen: Everything Syfiles can do, Borrelia can. Syfilis (het zusje van Borrelia) was in de jaren 30-50 een epidemie: https://youtu.be/3nIuIF6q8FA
    Syfiles en Borrelia zijn beide spirocheten. Syfiles is seksueel overdraagbaar
  3. When Dr. Jones (Bekende ILADS arts) treats a Lyme patient who’s in a relationship, he often treats the spouse as well; otherwise, he says, they can just pass the Bb back and forth, reinfecting each other! STD.

According to Dr. Stricker and Ms. Middelveen, researchers of the 2014 study on Lyme as an STD, it was suggested over a decade ago already that Lyme disease could be sexually transmitted because the Lyme bacteria

It would certainly explain why the disease is so common,” Dr. Stricker stated in our phone interview. “This is a big game changer”, Stricker said. “It would mean we should no longer think of Lyme based on geographical high risk zones. Read More.

  1. Wat zeggen Lyme patiënten zelf?

Joanne, who travels to Belgium from the Netherlands to see her doctor, strongly feels she transmitted the infection to her partner and expressed relief that her doctor informed her about this mode of transmission:

I am personally really glad my doctor said it is likely to be an STD. Because of this I had my boyfriend tested right away when I found out I had Lyme. He’s now also receiving treatment and is recovering much faster. With Lyme, the earlier you discover it, the better your chances of recovery, so no, I wouldn’t wait.

Barbara* has a story like so many Americans. Her infection wasn’t detected until many years after transmission:

I may have sustained a tick bite in 2008, but the circumstances were such that I brushed the incident off. I never had a bullseye rash. Lyme wasn’t identified until 2014 (after a year trying to find a diagnosis that explained my symptoms). Although Lyme crossed my mind my initial test was negative. My treatment might have been completely different if I had known and understood what IS NOT KNOWN about Lyme. I might have sought aggressive treatment for the tick bite, not ignored it. I might have been able to protect my husband who now also has Lyme.

Another patient: There are too many people with Lyme at the moment, it cannot only come from a tick bite anymore. Whole families are infected with Lyme. Including my family and my husband. I have Lyme. My husband never had a tick bite but had a positive test. He also has Lyme disease because of me. I think every practitioner has to tell their patients it’s sexually transmitted, there needs to be more information told about it.

  1. There is always some risk of getting Lyme disease from a tick bite in the woods. But there may be a bigger risk of getting Lyme disease in the bedroom

“The presence of the Lyme spirochete in genital secretions and identical strains in married couples strongly suggests that sexual transmission of the disease occurs,” said Dr. Mayne. The study was presented at the annual Western Regional Meeting of the American Federation for Medical Research, and an abstract of the research was published in the January issue of the Journal of Investigative Medicine.

The Lyme spirochete resembles the agent of syphilis, long recognized as the epitome of sexually transmitted diseases.

That makes Lyme disease almost twice as common as breast cancer and six times more common than HIV/AIDS.

It explains why the disease is more common than one would think if only ticks were involved in transmission

All women with Lyme disease tested positive for BB in vaginal secretions, while about half of the men with Lyme disease tested positive for the Lyme spirochete in semen samples. Furthermore, one of the heterosexual couples with Lyme disease showed identical strains of the Lyme spirochete in their genital secretions. Read More.

  1. Spouses have a significantly greater chance of developing the same disease as their partners – a phenomenon that can best be explained if familial aggregation has an infectious cause. Read More.

Echtgenoten hebben een veel grotere kans om dezelfde ziekte te ontwikkelen. Dit heeft een infectieuze oorzaak.

  1. Emerging information indicates that, if you are having unprotected sex at all — even in a monogamous relationship — you’re at risk of infection.

Everyone has the right to choose how they protect themselves and their partners. This is not about inciting panic or stigma. It is about encouraging an up-to-date public discussion regarding Lyme. It’s about allowing people an informed choice. And finally, for safer sex educators, it’s about informing people on how they can enjoy sex and remain infection free, and for those who are infected, how to best protect their partners. Read More.

  1. Dr. Bach (ILADS) behandeld (net als Dr Jones) ook de partner ivm herbesmetting:

Dr. Bach calls Bb “a brother” to the syphilis spirochete because of their genetic similarities. For that reason, when he treats a Lyme patient in a relationship, he often treats the spouse; otherwise, he says, they can just pass the Bb back and forth, reinfecting each other.

  1. https://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/01/prweb11506441.htm
  2. https://www.yourtango.com/experts/lucky-bloke-global-condom-experts/tick-might-ruin-your-sex-life-monogamous-sti-wont-care
  3. Dr.Klinghardt: There is also increasing evidence that Lyme disease may be transmitted sexually and congenitally. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete, a cousin to the spirochete bacterium that causes syphilis. In fact, they look almost identical under a microscope. B. burgdorferi’s corkscrew-shaped form allows it to burrow into and hide in a variety of your body’s tissues, which is why it causes such wide-ranging multisystem involvement:http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/10/13/under-our-skin-documentary.aspx
  4. Dr. Stricker pointed to the unknown risks of contracting Lyme disease raised by the study. “There is always some risk of getting Lyme disease from a tickbite in the woods,” he said. “But there may be a bigger risk of getting Lyme disease in the bedroom.
  5. Gregory Bach, D.O., presented a study on transmission via semen at the American Psychiatric Association meeting in November, 2000. He confirmed Bb DNA in semen using the PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction).
  6. Meer linkjes dat Lyme een SOA is: https://www.anapsid.org/lyme/std.html
  7. Gregory Bach, DO, International Scientific Conference on Lyme Disease, April 2001 Lyme disease, being a spirochete with pathology similar to syphilis, is often found difficult to treat due to the spirochete invading sanctuary sites and displaying pleomorphic characteristics such as a cyst (L-form).

Because a significant portion of sexually active couples present to my office with Lyme disease, with only one partner having a history of tick exposure, the question of possible secondary (sexual) vector of transmission for the spirochete warrants inquiry. Additionally, sexually active couples seem to have a marked propensity for antibiotic failure raising the question of sexually active couples re-infecting themselves through intimate contact.

Methods

Lyme spirochetes/DNA have been recovered from stored animal semen. Recovery of spirochete DNA from nursing mother’s breast milk and umbilical cord blood by PCR (confirmed by culture/microscopy), have been found in samples provided to my office.

Results

Surprisingly, initial laboratory testing of semen samples provided by male Lyme patients (positive by western blot/PCR in blood) and the male sexual partner of a Lyme infected female patient were positive approximately 40% of the time. PCR recovery of Lyme DNA nucleotide sequences with microscopic confirmation of semen samples yielded positive results in 14/32 Lyme patients (13 male semen samples and 1 vaginal pap).

ALL positive semen/vaginal samples in patients with known sexual partners resulted in positive Lyme titers/PCR in their sexual partners. 3/4 positive semen patients had no or unknown sexual partners to be tested.

These preliminary findings warrant further study. Current a statistical design study to evaluate the possibility of sexual transition of the spirochete is being undertaken. Our laboratory studies confirm the existence of Lyme spirochetes in semen/vaginal secretions. Whether or not further clinical studies with a larger statistical group will support the hypothesis of sexual transmission remains to be seen.

A retrospective clinical study is also underway. We are reviewing the medical records, collecting semen samples of patients who were previously diagnosed with current and previously treated Lyme disease are being asked to provide semen,pap and blood samples for extensive laboratory testing.

Conclusion:
With the initially impressive data, we feel the subsequent statistical study on the sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete will illuminate a much broader spectrum of public health concerns associated with the disease than the originally accepted tick borne vector.https://www.anapsid.org/lyme/bach.html

Volgens Harvey is er geen literatuur die het tegendeel beschrijft dat Lyme een SOA is.
Compelling evidence supports horizontal (sexual) and vertical (congenital) human to human transfer: https://www.nutramedix.ec/ns/science-library/163-methods-of-lyme-disease-transmission

Dr. Burrascano (bekende ILADS arts) zegt:

– Lyme is seksueel overdraagbaar.

– Partners moeten soms beide behandeld worden, anders blijven ze elkaar herbesmetten:

Wat kunnen andere spirocheten?

De ziekte van Weil: Leptospiren zijn spirocheten uit het genus Leptospira van de familie Leptospiraceae. Leptospiraceae behoort samen met de familie Spirochaetaceae waarin de genera Borrelia (o.a. Lyme-ziekte, febris recurrens) en Treponema (syphilis door T. pallidum) tot de orde Spirochaetales.

Leptospiren leven in de nieren van hun natuurlijke gastheren en worden uitgescheiden met de urine.

Ze kunnen geruime tijd buiten het lichaam van hun gastheer overleven, vooral als de condities gunstig zijn (warme en vochtige omgeving).

Besmetting van de mens vindt plaats door direct contact met de (levende of dode) gastheer of zijn urine of indirect via de met urine gecontamineerde omgeving, vooral oppervlaktewater, vochtige planten en modder.

Voor infectie is overdracht via wonden of slijmvliezen of misschien ook via de weke huid of door inademing van aërosolen van urine noodzakelijk. Intensief contact met dieren vormt een potentieel risico tot besmetting.

Leptospiren kunnen overgedragen worden via seksueel contact, transplacentair of via moedermelk.

Syfilis:
Syfilis is een seksueel overdraagbare aandoening. De oorzaak is de spirocheet bacterie. De bacterie komt het lichaam binnen via de slijmvliezen van vagina, penis, anus, mond of huid.

U kunt syfilis voorkomen door een condoom te gebruiken tijdens het vrijen. U moet ook bij orale seks een condoom gebruiken

It has been established that a wide variety of bugs can at least carry the disease – and that it even is found in human semen, blood, urine and saliva. This would explain why MS statistically ever-so-slightly can “run in the family”. It may partially be caused by a genetic propensity for not being able to clear the infection, but it may also be because bed bugs, fleas, lice, mosquitoes and sexual intercourseor even mere kissing can possibly transmit the bacterium. MS is oa Lyme: https://owndoc.com/lyme/multiple-sclerosis-is-lyme-disease-anatomy-of-a-cover-up/

Dr. Stricker over de seksuele overdracht van de Borrelia bacterie:https://player.vimeo.com/video/133875534

Given all the uncertainties with Lyme, prevention is more important than ever. We know condoms will be the most effective way to protect against its spread as an STI. Drawing from what people living with Lyme have voiced, my personal opinion is that if there is any chance whatsoever that Lyme could be sexually transmitted –and the evidence is rapidly increasing– more people need to be made aware of this possibility:https://safersex.education/can-lyme-disease-be-sexually-transmitted/

Bloedtransfusies:
1.
Artikel uit 1990:

The data demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2373880

2. Donated blood and body tissue

Donation of blood, bone marrow, organs or other tissues transmits pathogens between donor and recipient – even, in the case of blood donation, when there is an attempt to filter blood. At an average of around 0.01 microns in diameter, L-form (!) bacteria are small enough to pass through even the finest of filters: https://mpkb.org/home/pathogenesis/transmission

3. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in blood products (Badon SJ, Fister RD, Cable RG}:

The organism was shown to survive in RBCs (4 degrees C) and FFP (below -18 degrees C) for 45 days and in PCs (20-24 degrees C) for 6 days. The results of this study do not exclude the possibility of transmission of Lyme disease through blood transfusion. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2773025

4. Transfer of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. infection via blood transfusion in a murine model (Gabitzsch ES, Piesman J, Dolan MC, Sykes CM, Zeidner NS):

Our results indicate that it is possible to acquire B. burgdoferi infection via transfused blood in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis.

Nine of 19 (47.7%) immunodeficient mice, 7 of 15 (46.8%) inbred immunocompetent mice, and 6 of 10 (60.0%) outbred mice became infected with B. burgdorferi after transfusion. Our results indicate that it is possible to acquire B. burgdoferi infection via transfused blood in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16995409?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

5. The data demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA: https://lymerick.net/transmission-bb-transfusion.htm

6. These data demonstrate that transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi can occur in mice and suggest that it also may occur in humans: https://doi.org/10.1111/trf.12879

7. Volgens een studie van Nohlmans in 1991 is 9% van de bloedconserven in Nederland besmet. De epidemiologische relevantie van deze bevindingen zijn echter tot op heden niet onderzocht. Nadelman toonde aan dat na zes weken gekoelde opslag van bloedconserven de Borrelia bacterie nog aanwezig was en dat een aan transfusie gerelateerde Lymeziekte theoretisch mogelijk is. Verschillende andere studies komen tot dezelfde conclusie. https://www.borreliose.nl/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogsection&id=17&Itemid=58

8. Nog meer onderzoeken: https://ticktalkireland.wordpress.com/lyme-links/transmission/

9. Dr. Tang adds other avenues of infection: “Transmission may also occur via blood transfusion and through the bite of mosquitoes or other insects.” Dr. Cowden contends that unpasteurized goat or cow milk can infect a person with Bb. https://www.samento.com.ec/sciencelib/4lyme/recoveryoflyme.html

10. The results of this study do not exclude the possibility of transmission of Lyme disease through blood transfusion. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2773025?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

11. US studies have found Borrelia “may survive storage under blood banking conditions and that transfusion-related Lyme disease is theoretically possible”

Nadelman RB, Sherer C, Mack L, Pavia CS & Wormser GP. 1990, Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in human blood stored under blood banking conditions: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2349627

12. An article raising concerns about the transfusion-based transfusion was published. https://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=475003%20

13. A study conducted at the Sacramento (California) Medical Foundation Blood Center in 1989 states that there is evidence that the transmission of Borrelia is possible by blood transfusion. https://www.samento.com.ec/nutranews/story005.html

14. Furthermore, in 1990, a study by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia stated that the data demonstrates that Borrelia burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA. https://www.samento.com.ec/sciencelib/4lyme/bbinfectedhuman.htm

15. In January, the CDC recommended that public health departments report all cases of the infections to curb risks of infection via transfusion. https://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/u-s-blood-supply-plays-host-tick-borne-infection-babesiosis-premature-babies-highest-risk-article-1.952410

Ook vanwege de vele misdiagnoses is het safe om GEEN bloed te geven. Vanessa bleek na 25 jaar missdiagnoses Lyme en co infecties te hebben. Ze had meerdere keren bloed gegeven en daarmee waarschijnlijk mensen besmet zoals u in de bewijzen hierboven heeft kunnen lezen. Lyme wordt vaak pas na tientallen jaren ontdekt vanwege de slechte testen in Nederland. Deze zijn maar 30% betrouwbaar met als gevolg dat patiënten rondlopen met missdiagnoses zoals MS, ALS, Fibromyalgie, CVS/ME, reumatische artrites, ADHD, ADD.

“I’ve been very concerned about this issue and have spoken to Canadian Blood Services about it. I was very disappointed with their lack of knowledge and slowness to put measures into place to protect the public. I have given blood several times since I got Lyme, Bartonella and Mycoplasma because I was told it was ‘some kind of arthritis’ for over 25 years!” https://www.lymediseasebook.com/lyme_disease_risk_to_the_blood_supply

17. Het zusje Syfilis kan ook worden overgedragen door bijvoorbeeld een bloedtransfusie. https://www.nationaalkompas.nl/gezondheid-en-ziekte/ziekten-en-aandoeningen/infectieziekten-en-parasitaire-ziekten/soa/wat-zijn-soa-en-welke-factoren-beinvloeden-de-kans-op-soa/

18. Karen Smith, 51, from Northern Ireland, told the Sunday Telegraph she believes she may have contracted Lyme disease after undergoing a blood transfusion in 1987 while giving birth to her first child and may have passed it on to her children. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11924482/Lyme-disease-cases-have-quadrupled.html

Borrelia artritis na transplantatie:
Een incident van borrelia artritis na autologe chondrocyten transplantatie voor reparatie van een kraakbeendefect. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14730624?dopt=Abstract

Transmission is a key point inasmuch as millions of people world-wide are affected by blood, blood and tissue products and other human biologicals that indeed have the tremendous potential to transmit these important infections. I have an anecdotal case history of a woman who donated a kidney to her sister. The donor had been treated for Lyme disease. The recipient had no known history of Lyme disease. Both were sisters who lived in different countries—one in the US, the other in Germany. The result was the recipient succumbed to Lyme disease, which, due to her immunosuppressive drugs to ward off tissue rejection, took hold of her within a short time period following transplant surgery, and she died of Lyme infection. https://www.personalconsult.com/articles/bloodsupplyandlyme.html

DNA Borrelia in oorsmeer:
Artikel uit 1994:

In a female patient with increasing redness of the hands and face, proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi were detected in a biopsy of the ear by DNA amplification. Although acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans has been documented to be caused by B. burgdorferi, this is the first case with proven spirochetal presence in the skin of the head. After 2 weeks of intravenous therapy with ceftriaxone marked improvement of discoloration of the skin was noted. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7873838

Overdracht door insekten zoals steekvliegen, muggen, spinnen, mijt, vlooien:

De World Health Organisation meld: More than half the world’s population is at risk from diseases such as malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever, carried by mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other vectors. Every year, more than one billion people are infected and more than one million die from vector-borne diseases. Lees meer…

1. According to Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt, one of the leading authorities on Lyme disease, the bacteria can also be spread by other insects, including mosquitoes, spiders, fleas, and mites: https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/10/13/under-our-skin-documentary.aspx

Dr. Klinghardt van ILADS zegt dat de bacterie wordt overgedragen door muggen, spinnen, steekvliegen en mijt.

2. On July 10, 1989, while jogging with no shirt on, a 42-year-old man from Old Lyme, Connecticut, an area in which Lyme disease is endemic, was bothered by a large fly that he believed to be either a deerfly or a horsefly. After swatting at it unsuccessfully, he was bitten by the fly several times on the right side of the chest. The bites were acutely painful. The area around the bites was swollen for one to two days; the swelling then subsided.

This patient was bitten by a biting fly (an act he both saw and felt) and subsequently presented with Lyme disease, with erythema migrans at the site of the bite. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199006143222415

Er zijn heel veel patienten zoals het verhaal hierboven die kunnen bevestigen dat ze na de beet van een steekvlieg een bulls eye (de bekende rode kring kregen).

  1. Duidelijk artikel:

It is not a rare disease, it is epidemic. It is not just tick-borne; it can also be transmitted by other insects, including fleas, mosquitoes and mites — and by human-to-human contact: https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2001/07/25/lyme-disease-part-two.aspx

  1. Dr Steven Luger reported in The New England Journal of Medicine a case in which a patient was bitten by a large fly and presented 13 days later with Lyme symptoms. These were resolved via pharmaceutical treatment.
  2. A German study of patients with Lyme arthritis identified evidence, through serological test for antibodies to the causative spirochete, that one patient had contracted the disease from a fly.‘Lyme arthritis: Clinical features, serological and radiographic findings of cases in Herzer P, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, G Schierz, Schattenkirchner M, & Zollner N. 1986, Lyme Arthritis: Clinical Features, Serological, and Radiographic Findings of Cases in Germany, Klinische Wochenschrift 64:206-215.

Een Duits onderzoek toonde aan dat een patiënt Lyme arthritis van een steekvlieg had gekregen

  1. A French study of four Lyme patients ascertained that only one was bitten by a tick; the researchers suggested that two of the patients may have contracted the disease from a mosquito or biting fly. Doby JM, Chastel C, Couatarmanac’h A, Cousanca C, Chevrant-Breton J, Martin A, Legay B & Guiquen C. 1985, Etiologic and epidemiologic questions posed by erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme disease, Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 78(4):512-525.

Een Franse studie toonde aan dat twee van de patienten de ziekte van een muskiet/mug of steekvlieg hadden gekregen.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in 13 species of mites, 15 species of flies and two species fleas. Pokornỳ P. 1989, Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthopods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata), Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 38(1):52-60.

In 13 van de mijten, 15 steekvliegen en 2 vlooien is de Borrelia bacterie gevonden.

  1. A study identified Borrelia spirochetes in mosquitoes and fleas. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J & Juřicová Z. 1998, Investigation of haematophagous arthropods for borreliae – summarised data 1988-1996, Folia Parasitologica 45: 67-72.

In deze studie is de Borrelia bacterie gevonden in muskieten en steekvliegen.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes identifiedin mosquitoes and flies. Magnarelli LA & Anderson JF. 1988, Tick and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26(8):1482.

Borrelia gevonden in muskieten en steekvliegen.

  1. Borrelia afzelii spirochetes identified in female mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Aedes and Anopheles.Zákovská A, Capková L, Serỳ O, Halouzka J & Dendis M. 2006,Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from Overwintering Culex Pipiens Biotype Molestus Mosquitoes, Ann Agric Environ Med. 13(2):345-348. Alle onderzoeken zijn hier terug te vinden: http://www.lymedisease.org.au/transmission/

De Borrelia Afzeilli stam is gevonden in muskieten.

Ook in Duitsland trof men de bacterie aan in muggen!

  1. Wetenschappelijke studie die aantoont dat de Borrelia-bacterie ook wordt aangetroffen in Duitse muggen: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X15300327
  2. Nieuwe studie hertenvliegen: In een Amerikaans onderzoek werd er gekeken naar de aanwezigheid van Borrelia burgdorferi en Anaplasma phagocytophlyum in hertenvliegen. Van de 48 vliegen waren er 19 (39.58%) besmet met Borrelia burgdorferi en 14 (29.12%) met Anaplasma phagocytophlyum. Dit suggereert het risico van overdracht van Borrelia burgdorferi en Anaplasma phagocytophlyum via de beet van een hertenvlieg. Verder onderzoek zal moeten uitwijzen of overdracht mogelijk is en plaats vindt. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jvec.12225/pdf

Dus nee, u hoeft niet gebeten te worden door een teek om de ziekte van Lyme te krijgen. Een beet van een steekvlieg, mug, mijt en vlooien komt regelmatig voor. U kunt drager zijn van de bacterie zonder dat u het weet.

Hoe ziek en of u ziek wordt heeft te maken met de hoeveelheid bacteriën, hoelang ze al in uw lijf aanwezig zijn/groeien, hoe sterk het immuunsysteem is, hoe goed u nog in staat bent om te detoxen en de hoeveelheid stress in uw leven.

Urine:

  1. 1995: Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the urine and breast milk of patients with Lyme borreliosis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Detection+of+Borrelia+burgdorferi+DNA+by+polymerase+chain+reaction+in+the+urine+and+breast+milk+of+patients+with+Lyme+borreliosis
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA can be detected with high sensitivity (91%) by a nested PCR in urine of patients with Lyme borreliosis. In addition, this test can be a reliable marker for the efficacy of treatment: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0732889395000278
  1. http://www.nutramedix.ec/ns/science-library/163-methods-of-lyme-disease-transmission

Citing limitations of laboratory tests for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia, a study was conducted in 1995 at the University of Vienna (Austria) for the detection of Borrelia. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction testing for DNA, Borrelia was found to be present in both the URINE and breast milk of patients previously diagnosed with Lyme disease.

A dog allowed contact to experimentally infected dogs, gets Lyme disease, most likely from urine contact. Bron:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3554844

Experimental inoculation of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi. Burgess EC.

To determine if dogs could serve as a reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi, three beagles were inoculated subcutaneously (SQ) with 200 laboratory cultured spirochetes which were originally isolated from blood of a Peromyscus leucopus from Ft. McCoy, Wisc. One four month old beagle was inoculated SQ with 5 ground Ixodes dammini from Shelter Island, N.Y. which came from an area with a 50% B. burgdorferi tick infection rate; and another uninfected four month old beagle was housed loose on the floor with the tick inoculated dog. All three spirochete inoculated beagles developed IFA antibody titers to B. burgdorferi of (7 log2) to (8 log2) by day 28 post inoculation. All were apparently healthy and no spirochetes were cultured from the blood. In an attempt to exacerbate the disease two of the dogs were given 3 mg of dexamethasone on day 68 post inoculation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from blood of all these dogs on days 4 and 97 days post inoculation. The tick inoculated dog developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (10 log2) by day 14 post inoculation. The contact exposed dog also developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (7 log2) on post contact day 21 indicating contact infection. B. burgdorferi was not isolated from either of these dogs. These results indicate that, contact transmission of B. burgdorferi may occur between dogs, dogs can be subclinically infected with B. burgdorferi and have persistent infections.

An interview with James Steele DVM and Borrelia being transmitted to dogs via urine in 1976. (In 1976 wisten ze al dat honden het aan elkaar konden overdragen en dat overdracht door teken niet de enige manier is!)

A CDC officer worked on it for awhile after I left in 1972-73. He published on it and the transmission of Lyme disease to dogs and how it affected dogs. That work was completed by 1976 and hardly received any attention and now ten years later, 12 years later in 1988 at the AVMA Congress in Portland this past summer it was reported that not only dogs but many other species have Lyme disease and that ticks may not be the only route of transmission.

Onderzoeken en studies, Borrelia Lyme overdracht bij geboorte:

  1. These bacteria are transmitted in a variety of ways: mother to fetus, sperm to embryo, and among families and social groups.

Evidence is also growing that certain bacteria and viruses are able to cross the placental barrier – meaning they can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Researchers now believe that the fetal gut is colonized during pregnancy.

Research indicates that L-form (!) bacteria are able to survive in sperm, so a father can pass these pathogens to his child at the moment of conception.

Other studies have revealed that other bacterial species such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also capable of crossing the placental barrier during pregnancy

These studies reveals what may be one of the main reasons behind why some people seem much more susceptible to the Th1 pathogens (L-form, intracellular and biofilm bacteria) that cause chronic disease and acquire these chronic bacterial forms at higher rates than much of the rest of the population.

If parents, grandparents and relatives with high loads of the Th1 pathogens hold and care for babies during the first weeks of life, it appears that their bacteria can easily be transmitted to the child and persist in the child’s brain and other tissues.

Spouses have a significantly greater chance of developing the same disease as their partners – a phenomenon that can best be explained if familial aggregation has an infectious cause.

From father to child via sperm: Research indicates that pathogens are able to survive in sperm, so a father can pass these bacteria to his child at the moment of conception. This may explain why, according to some anecdotal reports, females who have experienced multiple miscarriages have successful pregnancies after changing partners. Given its key role in innate immune function, the existence of the VDR in sperm also suggests that sperm are susceptible to infection. In 2012, Blomberg et al. showed that expression of the vitamin D metabolizing enzyme CYP24A1 in human sperm was an effective marker of semen quality. https://mpkb.org/home/pathogenesis/transmission

  1. A number of health practitioners who specialize in Lyme disease say that they’ve seen evidence that gestational transmission is occurring.

Scientists have long suspected, however, that the spiral-shaped Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgoferi, can be passed gestationally, since other “spirochetes” – most notably the syphilis bacteria – are known to be transmitted in the womb, causing a range of birth defects: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mothers-may-pass-lyme-disease-to-children-in-the-womb/

  1. Patiënt: Ik weet nog maar 9 maanden dat ik al 31 jaar de ziekte van Lyme heb en dit aan mijn dochters doorgaf tijdens de zwangerschap. Op dit moment ligt mijn oudste (16jr) samen met mij ziek in bed. De jongste kan maar net naar school (13jaar)Het is hier ook, zoals bij zovelen: een financiële hel!
  1. “Of the more than 5,000 children I’ve treated, 240 have been born with the disease,” says Charles Ray Jones, MD. Dr. Jones, who is the world’s leading pediatric specialist on Lyme Disease, says that about 90% of his practice is comprised of patients with the disease. He also states, “Twelve children who’ve been breast-fed have subsequently developed Lyme” https://www.nutramedix.ec/ns/science-library/163-methods-of-lyme-disease-transmission
  1. Studies in both human and animal models have established that B. burgdorferi can cross the placenta, presumably occurring during a period of spirochetemia.

Transplacental transmission of B. burgdorferi has been documented in studies of wild animals. The spirochetehas been cultured from the fetal tissues of a coyote and white-footed mouse, P. leucopus (Burgess etal., ’89; Anderson et al., ’87).

  1. Another study used PCR analysis to confirm the presence of B. burgdorferi in fetal tissue of the white-footed mouse and the house mouse, M. musculus (Burgess et al., 1993).
  1. Further, a newborn calf was found to have a positive blood culture for B. burgdorferi (Burgess 1988). Transplacental transmission has also been documented in a more controlled laboratory animal population.
  1. B. burgdorferi was identified by PCR in 19 of 40 pups born to female beagles that had been intradermally inoculated with the spirochete multiple times between estrus and parturition.
  1. Maternal infection with B. burgdorferi has also been associated with reproductive failure and severe fetal infection in horses (Burgess, ’89). Of seven naturally infected pregnant mares, three fetuses were aborted or resorbed, three foals died within the first week of life with culture-positive renal tissue and histologic evidence of renal pathology, and one foal was euthanized at 1 year after exhibiting chronic, progressive neurological disease over the previous 6 months. Although primary infection may have occurred after birth, this case may be an example of chronic, nonfatal in utero infection: https://teratology.org/updates/64pg276.pdf
  1. Finding of Bb in human semen and breast milk: http://home.comcast.net/~runagain/LymeDiseasepandemic.pdf
  1. Schmidt. B. L.. E. Aberer, et al. (1995). “Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the urine and breast milk of patients with Lyme borreliosis.” Diaqn Microbiol Infect Dis 21(3): 121-8.
  1. Miskramen: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14526331?dopt=Abstract
  1. Andere studies wbt overdracht moeder op baby

Altaie. S. S., S. Mookherjee. et al. (1996). Abstract # I17 Transmission of Borrelia burqdorferi from experimentally infected mating pairs to offspring in a murine model. FDA Science Forum.

Congenital Transmission of Lyme/TBD (Aangeboren)

* MacDonald A. Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77.

* MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease. N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6.

* MacDonald A. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200.

* Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (1985) Ann Intern Med, 103, 67-8.

* Markowitz LE, Steere AC, Benach JL, et al. Lyme disease during pregnancy. JAMA.(1986); 255(24), 3394-6.

* Lavoie PE, Lattner BP, Duray PH, Barbour AG, Johnson HC. Culture positive seronegative transplacental Lyme borreliosis infant mortality. (1987) Arthritis Rheum, 30(4), 3(Suppl):S50.

* Mikkelsen AL, Palle C. Lyme disease during pregnancy. (1987) Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66(5), 477-8.

* Weber K; Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH. (1988) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 7:286-9.

* Carlomagno G, Luksa V, Candussi G, et al. (1988) Lyme Borrelia positive serology associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area. Acta Eur Fertil 19(5), 279-81. Abstract

* Weber K, Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, et al. (1988) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7(4), 286-9. Full Citation

* Nadal D, Hunziker UA, Bucher HU, et al. (1989) Infants born to mothers with antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi at delivery. Eur J Pediatr 148(5), 426-7. Abstract

* Schutzer SE, Janniger CK, Schwartz RA (1991) Lyme disease during pregnancy. Cutis 47(4), 267-8. Abstract

* Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, et al. (1993) Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169(2 Pt 1), 367-74.

* Jovanovi R, Hajri A, Cirkovi A, et al. (1993) [Lyme disease and pregnancy]. Glas Srp Akad Nauka Med (43), 169-72.

* Kumi D J, Harris O.(1995) Viability of Borrelia burgdorferi in stored semen. Br Vet J Mar-Apr;151(2): 221-4 PMID: 8920118

* Williams CL, Strobino B, Weinstein A, et al. (1995) Maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformations: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 9(3), 320-30.

* Silver H. (1997) Lyme Disease During Pregnancy. Inf Dis Clinics of N. Amer. Vol 11, No 1,

* van Holten J, Tiems J, Jongen VH (1997) Neonatal Borrelia duttoni infection: a report of three cases. Trop Doct 27(2), 115-6.

* Harvey WT, Salvato P. (2003) ‘Lyme disease’: ancient engine of an unrecognized borreliosis pandemic? Med Hypotheses. 60(5), 742-59.

* Stricker, R.B., D.H. Moore, and E.E. Winger. (2004). Clinical and immunologic evidence of transmission of Lyme disease through intimate human contact. J. Invest. Med. 52, S15

* Onk G, Acun C, Kalayci M, Cagavi F, et al. (2005) Gestational Lyme disease as a rare cause of congenital hydrocephalus. J Turkish German Gynecology Association Artemis, 6(2), 156-157.

* Jones CR, Smith H, Gibb E, Johnson L (2005) Gestational Lyme Disease: Case Studies of 102 Live Births. Lyme Times. Gestational Lyme Studies 34-36

* Hercogova J, Vanousova D (2008) Syphilis and borreliosis during pregnancy. Dermatol Ther 21(3), 205-9.

* Lakos A, Solymosi N (2010) Maternal Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy outcome. Int J Infect Dis 14(6), e494-8.

* Mylonas I (2011) Borreliosis During Pregnancy: A Risk for the Unborn Child? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11:891-8.

* Gardner T. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, 5th edition, (1995) Chapter 11, page 447 – 528.

* Gardner T. Lyme disease. 66 Pregnancies complicates by Lyme Borreliosis. Infec Dis Fetus and Newborn Infant. Saunders, 2000.

* Kumi-Diaka J, Harris O. Br Vet J. Viability of Borrelia burgdorferi in stored semen. 1995 Mar-Apr;151(2):221-4.

MEDLINE results for: borrelia pregnancy AND human. 88 journal articles in the PubMed database BDH, July 2012, Latest Revision November 2012,

Mothers with active Lyme Disease, Treated: 14.6% of the pregnancies with sequelae, Untreated: 66.7% of the pregnancies with sequelae, Unknown as to treatment: 30.3% with sequelae.

Specific adverse outcomes included: cardiac 22.7%, neurologic 15.2%, orthopedic 12.1%, opthalmic 4.5%, genitourinary 10.6%, miscellaneous anomalies 12.1%, 2nd trimester demise 12.1%.

Highest rate of adverse outcome (72.7%) in women with infection acquired prior to or during first trimester. [Gardner T]

The issue of transplacental (mother to child in utero) transmission is raised in the LDAA’s formal response to DoH Scoping Study on Lyme disease (page 16) from Gardner T. 2001, ‘Lyme disease’ in J Remington & JO Klein (eds), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 5th edn. Philidelphia, WB Saunders; 519-641

Overdracht via zoogdieren:

Transmission of Borrelia from animals to humans could theoretically occur via exposure to their urine, blood, semen, colostrums or synovial fluid, as detailed below. (urine, bloed, sperma, biest/melk, gewrichtsvloeistof)

Bewijs dat Borrelia in zoogdieren zit:

There is ample evidence of Borrelia in mammals reported in Australian and overseas research:

  1. An Australian study found Borrelia spirochetes in cattle, rodents, kangaroos and bandicoots. Mackerras MJ. 1959, The haematozoa of Australian mammals. Aust J Zool. vol. 7: 105-135.
  1. An Australian study identified a new species of Borrelia (B. queenslandica), in the blood of rats. Carley JG & Pope JH. 1962, A new species of Borrelia (B. queenslandica) from Rattus Villosissimus in Queensland, Aust J Exp Biol. Vol. 40:255-262.
  1. Borrelia antibodies were identified in 22 mammalian species, including carnivores and rodents.
  1. Pokornỳ P. 1989, Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthopods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata), Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 38(1):52-60.
  1. Evidence of Borrelia found in systemically ill cats and dogs in the UK. Shaw SE, BInns SH, Birtles RJ, Day MJ, Smithson R & Kenny MJ. 2005, Molecular evidence of tick-transmitted infections in dogs and cats in the United Kingdom, Vet Rec Nov 19; 157(21): 645-648.
  1. Positive ELISA results for Borrelia antibodies in horses. Sorensen K, Neely DP, Grappell PM & Reed W. 1990, Lyme disease antibodies in thoroughbred broodmares, correlation to early pregnancy failure, Equine Vet J, 10(3): 166-168.

Bewijs van overdracht:

  1. Muizen die geïnfecteerd waren met de Borrelia bacterie, besmette niet geïnfecteerde muizen. Via direct contact werd de Borrelia bacterie overgedragen op de niet geïnfecteerde muizen! Bron: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3513648
  1. The LDAA Australian patient report (2012), page 12, Table 2 and page 14, Table 4 included respondents nominating other suspected modes of transmission via animals including, urine, saliva and milk. (Urine, Speeksel, melk)
  1. Live Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in the blood and urine of white-footed mice. The authors reported that “Spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine.” Bosler EM & Schulze TL. 1986, The prevalence and significance of Borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts, Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikroboil Hyg A., Dec; 263(1-2): 40-44.
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in the blood of a dog three and four weeks post infection. Cerri D, Farina R, Andreani E, Nuvoloni R, Pedrini A & Cardini G. 1994, Experimental infection of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi, Res Vet Sci, 57(2): 256-258.
  1. Horse and cow blood, cow colostrums, cow urine and cow synovial fluids found to be Borrelia burgdorferi culture positive. Burgess EC. 1998, Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Wisconsin horses and cows, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 539:235-243.

Alle onderzoeken hierboven kunt u hier terug vinden: https://www.lymedisease.org.au/transmission/

“Het vechten tegen deze verschrikkelijke ziekte zorgde ervoor dat ik mijn leven weer helemaal opnieuw moest opbouwen. Maar ik ben er nog, ik leef nog.”

Pete Philly, Nederlandse zanger/rapper, Lyme-patiënt

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