Transfer of Lyme disease

 In ILADS, Lyme, Transfer, Treatment

Transfer of Lyme disease

Before you start reading, it is important to know that if you are a carrier of the bacteria, this does not mean you will immediately get sick. As long as your immune system remains strong, there is nothing to worry about. Decades ago Lida Mattman wrote that they had trouble finding uncontaminated blood to perform blood tests on. That means that most are probably already carriers of this bacterium.

What investigations and evidence are there?

Let’s start with the microbiologist Lida Mattman. She has studied the Borrelia for 50 years (according to wikipedia 70 years) and has been nominated for the Nobel Prize. She knows the Borrelia spirochete better than anyone. Her life’s work was to investigate the spirochete Borrelia. She studied the different forms and the transmission of this spirochete.

Wikipedia: A researcher who for years (over 70 years) has investigated the appearance of these bacterial forms Lida H. Mann Matt (USA). She wrote the book Cell Wall Deficient Forms: Stealth pathogens, which has published a third edition in 2000.

Lida Mattman about Lyme disease

The bacteria live inside urine, breast milk and tears, semen, blood, plasma, and the moisture in the brains and spinal cord. She found Borrelia in tears, and explains how easy Borrelia can therefore be transmitted through the hands.

The microbiologist Professor Lida Mattman isolated living Borrelia spirochetes, inter alia, mosquitoes, fleas, mites, semen, urine, blood, plasma and CSF. What she discovered that this bacteria is dangerous because it can survive and spread without cell wall (L shape).

(Because L-forms do not possess cell wall, they are resistant to bèta-lactamantibiotics, such as penicillin. These are antibiotics that act on the cell wall)

Many families are already known for having all members (as with Rosan) suffering from borreliosis, but each of which, prior to the conclusion thereof, contributed another diagnostic label, with the consequent (not full effect) medication. The result being that if one family member has Lyme, the whole family should be treated.

A few points to consider:

  • It is NOT recommended to remove a tick using the hands, this could coause infection through the hands.
  • Entire families got infected with Lyme, they were not infected at birth! That only happened AFTER a family member had a tick, then the whole family got sick.
  • Friends of Lyme patients were ill also a ILADS doctor reported. “In my area if anyone gets sick, they all get the same symptoms as I have” a patient reported.

Social contact: A number of studies of unrelated people shows that mere proximity seems to be enough to transmit chronic disease. A case-controlled study of residents of the Isle of Man found that 40% of people with sarcoidosis had been in social contact with a person known to have the disease, compared with 1-2% of the control subjects. Another study reported three cases of sarcoidosis among ten firefighters who apprenticed together. Read More.

Cats and dogs can also carry Lyme and Bartonella and transfer it to humans. Man does not have sex with them, this happens through saliva, blood, feces and tears.

In an experiment with cats Burgess could infect the cats orally and via the lacrimal fluid. Also, an oral infection in mice could be demonstrated by him and also contact transmission in dogs and mice. If oral infection is possible then food as a vector also becomes eligible. Lischer found Borrelia burgdorferi in cow’s milk.

Couples who have had safe sex still got infected with Lyme!

Lyme disease is transmitted sexually:

  1. A doctor does ILADS Lyme test by removing moisture in women. Lyme bacteria is 100% in women present, 50% of men.
  2. There are studies in which Borrelia spirochetes have been found in both semen and vaginal fluid and in which both the man and the woman had identical strains of Borrelia in their moisture.  One study of it was done with the Borrelia Hermsi strain. This is a rare type of strain. What was special about this study is that both partners had these Borrelia strain in the fluid and sperm!

The culture of viable Borrelia spirochetes in genital secretions suggests that Lyme disease could be transmitted by intimate contact from person to person:

  1. Dr. Raphael Stricker: “It would certainly explains why the disease is so common,” Dr. Raphael Stricker, one of the researchers of the study stated. According to the CDC, there are 300,000 new cases of Lyme each year and this rate is rapidly increasing making it one of the most urgent epidemics today.
  2. Alan Macdonald, Burescano en Horowitz zeggen: Everything Syfiles can do, Borrelia can. Syfilis (het zusje van Borrelia) was in de jaren 30-50 een epidemie:
    Syfiles en Borrelia zijn beide spirocheten. Syfiles is seksueel overdraagbaar
  3. When Dr. Jones (Bekende ILADS arts) treats a Lyme patient who’s in a relationship, he often treats the spouse as well; otherwise, he says, they can just pass the Bb back and forth, reinfecting each other! STD.

According to Dr. Stricker and Ms. Middelveen, researchers of the 2014 study on Lyme as an STD, it was suggested over a decade ago already that Lyme disease could be sexually transmitted because the Lyme bacteria

It would certainly explain why the disease is so common,” Dr. Stricker stated in our phone interview. “This is a big game changer”, Stricker said. “It would mean we should no longer think of Lyme based on geographical high risk zones. Read More.

  1. What  do Lyme patients say themselves?

Joanne, who travels to Belgium from the Netherlands to see her doctor, strongly feels she transmitted the infection to her partner and expressed relief that her doctor informed her about this mode of transmission:

I am personally really glad my doctor said it is likely to be an STD. Because of this I had my boyfriend tested right away when I found out I had Lyme. He’s now also receiving treatment and is recovering much faster. With Lyme, the earlier you discover it, the better your chances of recovery, so no, I wouldn’t wait.

Barbara* has a story like so many Americans. Her infection wasn’t detected until many years after transmission:

I may have sustained a tick bite in 2008, but the circumstances were such that I brushed the incident off. I never had a bullseye rash. Lyme wasn’t identified until 2014 (after a year trying to find a diagnosis that explained my symptoms). Although Lyme crossed my mind my initial test was negative. My treatment might have been completely different if I had known and understood what IS NOT KNOWN about Lyme. I might have sought aggressive treatment for the tick bite, not ignored it. I might have been able to protect my husband who now also has Lyme.

Another patient: There are too many people with Lyme at the moment, it cannot only come from a tick bite anymore. Whole families are infected with Lyme. Including my family and my husband. I have Lyme. My husband never had a tick bite but had a positive test. He also has Lyme disease because of me. I think every practitioner has to tell their patients it’s sexually transmitted, there needs to be more information told about it.

  1. There is always some risk of getting Lyme disease from a tick bite in the woods. But there may be a bigger risk of getting Lyme disease in the bedroom

“The presence of the Lyme spirochete in genital secretions and identical strains in married couples strongly suggests that sexual transmission of the disease occurs,” said Dr. Mayne. The study was presented at the annual Western Regional Meeting of the American Federation for Medical Research, and an abstract of the research was published in the January issue of the Journal of Investigative Medicine.

The Lyme spirochete resembles the agent of syphilis, long recognized as the epitome of sexually transmitted diseases.

That makes Lyme disease almost twice as common as breast cancer and six times more common than HIV/AIDS.

It explains why the disease is more common than one would think if only ticks were involved in transmission

All women with Lyme disease tested positive for BB in vaginal secretions, while about half of the men with Lyme disease tested positive for the Lyme spirochete in semen samples. Furthermore, one of the heterosexual couples with Lyme disease showed identical strains of the Lyme spirochete in their genital secretions. Read More.

  1. Spouses have a significantly greater chance of developing the same disease as their partners – a phenomenon that can best be explained if familial aggregation has an infectious cause. Read More.

Spouses have a much greater chance of developing the same disease. This has an infectious cause.

  1. Emerging information indicates that, if you are having unprotected sex at all — even in a monogamous relationship — you’re at risk of infection.

Everyone has the right to choose how they protect themselves and their partners. This is not about inciting panic or stigma. It is about encouraging an up-to-date public discussion regarding Lyme. It’s about allowing people an informed choice. And finally, for safer sex educators, it’s about informing people on how they can enjoy sex and remain infection free, and for those who are infected, how to best protect their partners. Read More.

  1. Dr. Bach (ILADS) treated (like Dr. Jones) partners because of reinfection:

Dr. Bach calls Bb “a brother” to the syphilis spirochete because of their genetic similarities. For that reason, when he treats a Lyme patient in a relationship, he often treats the spouse; otherwise, he says, they can just pass the Bb back and forth, reinfecting each other.

  3. Dr.Klinghardt: There is also increasing evidence that Lyme disease may be transmitted sexually and congenitally. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete, a cousin to the spirochete bacterium that causes syphilis. In fact, they look almost identical under a microscope. B. burgdorferi’s corkscrew-shaped form allows it to burrow into and hide in a variety of your body’s tissues, which is why it causes such wide-ranging multisystem involvement:
  4. Dr. Stricker pointed to the unknown risks of contracting Lyme disease raised by the study. “There is always some risk of getting Lyme disease from a tickbite in the woods,” he said. “But there may be a bigger risk of getting Lyme disease in the bedroom.
  5. Gregory Bach, D.O., presented a study on transmission via semen at the American Psychiatric Association meeting in November, 2000. He confirmed Bb DNA in semen using the PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction).
  6. Meer linkjes dat Lyme een SOA is:
  7. Gregory Bach, DO, International Scientific Conference on Lyme Disease, April 2001 Lyme disease, being a spirochete with pathology similar to syphilis, is often found difficult to treat due to the spirochete invading sanctuary sites and displaying pleomorphic characteristics such as a cyst (L-form).

Because a significant portion of sexually active couples present to my office with Lyme disease, with only one partner having a history of tick exposure, the question of possible secondary (sexual) vector of transmission for the spirochete warrants inquiry. Additionally, sexually active couples seem to have a marked propensity for antibiotic failure raising the question of sexually active couples re-infecting themselves through intimate contact.


Lyme spirochetes/DNA have been recovered from stored animal semen. Recovery of spirochete DNA from nursing mother’s breast milk and umbilical cord blood by PCR (confirmed by culture/microscopy), have been found in samples provided to my office.


Surprisingly, initial laboratory testing of semen samples provided by male Lyme patients (positive by western blot/PCR in blood) and the male sexual partner of a Lyme infected female patient were positive approximately 40% of the time. PCR recovery of Lyme DNA nucleotide sequences with microscopic confirmation of semen samples yielded positive results in 14/32 Lyme patients (13 male semen samples and 1 vaginal pap).

ALL positive semen/vaginal samples in patients with known sexual partners resulted in positive Lyme titers/PCR in their sexual partners. 3/4 positive semen patients had no or unknown sexual partners to be tested.

These preliminary findings warrant further study. Current a statistical design study to evaluate the possibility of sexual transition of the spirochete is being undertaken. Our laboratory studies confirm the existence of Lyme spirochetes in semen/vaginal secretions. Whether or not further clinical studies with a larger statistical group will support the hypothesis of sexual transmission remains to be seen.

A retrospective clinical study is also underway. We are reviewing the medical records, collecting semen samples of patients who were previously diagnosed with current and previously treated Lyme disease are being asked to provide semen,pap and blood samples for extensive laboratory testing.

With the initially impressive data, we feel the subsequent statistical study on the sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete will illuminate a much broader spectrum of public health concerns associated with the disease than the originally accepted tick borne vector.

According to Harvey, there is no literature which describes the contrary, that Lyme disease is an STD.
Compelling evidence supports horizontal (sexual) and vertical (congenital) human to human transfer:

Dr. Burrascano (known ILADS doctor) says:

– Lyme disease is transmitted sexually.

– Partners both should be treated, otherwise they will be reinfecting each other:

What other spirochetes?

Weil’s disease: Leptospira are spirochetes of the genus Leptospira of the Leptospiraceae family. Leptospiraceae belongs with the family Spirochaetaceae which the genera Borrelia (among others Lyme disease, relapsing fever) and Treponema (syphilis T. pallidum) to order Spirochaetales.

Leptospira live in the kidneys of their natural hosts and are excreted in the urine.

They can survive for a long time outside the body of their host, especially if the conditions are favorable (hot and humid environment).

Infection of people takes place by direct contact with the (living or dead) host or his urine or indirectly via the urine with contaminated environment, especially surface water, moist plants and mud.

For infection transmission through wounds or mucous membranes or perhaps through the soft skin or by inhalation of aerosols of urine necessary. Intensive contact with animals is a potential risk of contamination.

Leptospira can be transmitted through sexual contact, transplacental or through breast milk.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease. The cause is the spirochete bacterium. The bacterium enters the body through the mucous membranes of the vagina, penis, anus, mouth or skin.

You can prevent syphilis by using a condom during sex. You should also use a condom for oral sex.

It has been established that a wide variety of bugs can at least carry the disease – and that it even is found in human semen, blood, urine and saliva. This would explain why MS statistically ever-so-slightly can “run in the family”. It may partially be caused by a genetic propensity for not being able to clear the infection, but it may also be because bed bugs, fleas, lice, mosquitoes and sexual intercourseor even mere kissing can possibly transmit the bacterium. MS is oa Lyme:

Dr. Stricker on the sexual transmission of the Borrelia bacterium:

Given all the uncertainties with Lyme, prevention is more important than ever. We know condoms will be the most effective way to protect against its spread as an STI. Drawing from what people living with Lyme have voiced, my personal opinion is that if there is any chance whatsoever that Lyme could be sexually transmitted –and the evidence is rapidly increasing– more people need to be made aware of this possibility:

Blood transfusions:
Artikel uit 1990:

The data demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA:

2. Donated blood and body tissue

Donation of blood, bone marrow, organs or other tissues transmits pathogens between donor and recipient – even, in the case of blood donation, when there is an attempt to filter blood. At an average of around 0.01 microns in diameter, L-form (!) bacteria are small enough to pass through even the finest of filters:

3. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in blood products (Badon SJ, Fister RD, Cable RG}:

The organism was shown to survive in RBCs (4 degrees C) and FFP (below -18 degrees C) for 45 days and in PCs (20-24 degrees C) for 6 days. The results of this study do not exclude the possibility of transmission of Lyme disease through blood transfusion.

4. Transfer of Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. infection via blood transfusion in a murine model (Gabitzsch ES, Piesman J, Dolan MC, Sykes CM, Zeidner NS):

Our results indicate that it is possible to acquire B. burgdoferi infection via transfused blood in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis.

Nine of 19 (47.7%) immunodeficient mice, 7 of 15 (46.8%) inbred immunocompetent mice, and 6 of 10 (60.0%) outbred mice became infected with B. burgdorferi after transfusion. Our results indicate that it is possible to acquire B. burgdoferi infection via transfused blood in a mouse model of Lyme borreliosis.

5. The data demonstrate that B. burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA:

6. These data demonstrate that transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi can occur in mice and suggest that it also may occur in humans:

7. According to a study of Nohlmans in 1991, 9% of infected blood preserved in the Netherlands. However, the epidemiological significance of these findings have not been investigated to date.  Nadelman showed that the bacterium Borrelia was still present after six weeks of refrigerated storage of preserved blood, and that a is theoretically possible to Lyme disease-related transfusion. Several other studies have come to the same conclusion.

8. Even more tests:

9. Dr. Tang adds other avenues of infection: “Transmission may also occur via blood transfusion and through the bite of mosquitoes or other insects.” Dr. Cowden contends that unpasteurized goat or cow milk can infect a person with Bb.

10. The results of this study do not exclude the possibility of transmission of Lyme disease through blood transfusion.

11. US studies have found Borrelia “may survive storage under blood banking conditions and that transfusion-related Lyme disease is theoretically possible”

Nadelman RB, Sherer C, Mack L, Pavia CS & Wormser GP. 1990, Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in human blood stored under blood banking conditions:

12. An article raising concerns about the transfusion-based transfusion was published.

13. A study conducted at the Sacramento (California) Medical Foundation Blood Center in 1989 states that there is evidence that the transmission of Borrelia is possible by blood transfusion.

14. Furthermore, in 1990, a study by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia stated that the data demonstrates that Borrelia burgdorferi can survive the blood processing procedures normally applied to transfused blood in the USA.

15. In January, the CDC recommended that public health departments report all cases of the infections to curb risks of infection via transfusion.

Also because of the many misdiagnoses, it is the safest to not donate blood. Vanessa was found that after 25 years of missing diagnoses Lyme and co infections. She had given blood several times and likely infected people like you in the evidence may have read above. Lyme disease is often discovered only after decades due to poor testing in the Netherlands. These are only 30% reliable with the result that patients walking around with missing diagnoses such as MS, ALS, Fibromyalgia, CFS/ME, rheumatoid arthritis, ADHD, ADD.

“I’ve been very concerned about this issue and have spoken to Canadian Blood Services about it. I was very disappointed with their lack of knowledge and slowness to put measures into place to protect the public. I have given blood several times since I got Lyme, Bartonella and Mycoplasma because I was told it was ‘some kind of arthritis’ for over 25 years!”

17. The ‘sister’ Syphilis can also be transmitted by, for example, a blood transfusion.

18. Karen Smith, 51, from Northern Ireland, told the Sunday Telegraph she believes she may have contracted Lyme disease after undergoing a blood transfusion in 1987 while giving birth to her first child and may have passed it on to her children.

Borrelia arthritis after transplantation:
An incident of Borrelia arthritis after autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the repair of a cartilage defect.

Transmission is a key point inasmuch as millions of people world-wide are affected by blood, blood and tissue products and other human biologicals that indeed have the tremendous potential to transmit these important infections. I have an anecdotal case history of a woman who donated a kidney to her sister. The donor had been treated for Lyme disease. The recipient had no known history of Lyme disease. Both were sisters who lived in different countries—one in the US, the other in Germany. The result was the recipient succumbed to Lyme disease, which, due to her immunosuppressive drugs to ward off tissue rejection, took hold of her within a short time period following transplant surgery, and she died of Lyme infection.

Borrelia DNA in earwax:
Artikel uit 1994:

In a female patient with increasing redness of the hands and face, proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi were detected in a biopsy of the ear by DNA amplification. Although acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans has been documented to be caused by B. burgdorferi, this is the first case with proven spirochetal presence in the skin of the head. After 2 weeks of intravenous therapy with ceftriaxone marked improvement of discoloration of the skin was noted.

Transmission by insects such as horseflies, mosquitoes, spiders, mites, fleas:

The World Health Organisation reports: More than half the world’s population is at risk from diseases such as malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever, carried by mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other vectors. Every year, more than one billion people are infected and more than one million die from vector-borne diseases.  Read more…

1. According to Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt, one of the leading authorities on Lyme disease, the bacteria can also be spread by other insects, including mosquitoes, spiders, fleas, and mites:

Dr. Klinghardt of ILADS says that the bacterium is transmitted by mosquitoes, spiders, flies, and mites.

2. On July 10, 1989, while jogging with no shirt on, a 42-year-old man from Old Lyme, Connecticut, an area in which Lyme disease is endemic, was bothered by a large fly that he believed to be either a deerfly or a horsefly. After swatting at it unsuccessfully, he was bitten by the fly several times on the right side of the chest. The bites were acutely painful. The area around the bites was swollen for one to two days; the swelling then subsided.

This patient was bitten by a biting fly (an act he both saw and felt) and subsequently presented with Lyme disease, with erythema migrans at the site of the bite.

There are many patients like the story above that can confirm that they had a bulls-eye (the famous red circle) after the bite of a gadfly.

Clear article:

It is not a rare disease, it is epidemic. It is not just tick-borne; it can also be transmitted by other insects, including fleas, mosquitoes and mites — and by human-to-human contact:

  1. Dr Steven Luger reported in The New England Journal of Medicine a case in which a patient was bitten by a large fly and presented 13 days later with Lyme symptoms. These were resolved via pharmaceutical treatment.
  2. A German study of patients with Lyme arthritis identified evidence, through serological test for antibodies to the causative spirochete, that one patient had contracted the disease from a fly.‘Lyme arthritis: Clinical features, serological and radiographic findings of cases in Herzer P, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, G Schierz, Schattenkirchner M, & Zollner N. 1986, Lyme Arthritis: Clinical Features, Serological, and Radiographic Findings of Cases in Germany, Klinische Wochenschrift 64:206-215.
  1. A French study of four Lyme patients ascertained that only one was bitten by a tick; the researchers suggested that two of the patients may have contracted the disease from a mosquito or biting fly. Doby JM, Chastel C, Couatarmanac’h A, Cousanca C, Chevrant-Breton J, Martin A, Legay B & Guiquen C. 1985, Etiologic and epidemiologic questions posed by erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme disease, Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales 78(4):512-525.
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in 13 species of mites, 15 species of flies and two species fleas. Pokornỳ P. 1989, Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthopods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata), Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 38(1):52-60.
  1. A study identified Borrelia spirochetes in mosquitoes and fleas. Hubálek Z, Halouzka J & Juřicová Z. 1998, Investigation of haematophagous arthropods for borreliae – summarised data 1988-1996, Folia Parasitologica 45: 67-72.
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes identifiedin mosquitoes and flies. Magnarelli LA & Anderson JF. 1988, Tick and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 26(8):1482.
  1. Borrelia afzelii spirochetes identified in female mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Aedes and Anopheles.Zákovská A, Capková L, Serỳ O, Halouzka J & Dendis M. 2006,Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from Overwintering Culex Pipiens Biotype Molestus Mosquitoes, Ann Agric Environ Med. 13(2):345-348. Alle onderzoeken zijn hier terug te vinden:
  1. Wetenschappelijke studie die aantoont dat de Borrelia-bacterie ook wordt aangetroffen in Duitse muggen:
  2. Forty-eight Lipoptena cervi were collected from southwestern Pennsylvania. There were 19 (39.58%) deer keds positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and 14 (29.12%) deer keds positive for Anaplasma phagocytophlyum. Out of the 48 deer ked, three (6.25%) were co-infected with the etiologic agents of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.

So no, you do not need to be bitten by a tick to get Lyme disease. A bit of a gadfly, mosquito, mite and flea occurs regularly. You can be a carrier of the bacterium without knowing it.

How sick or ill you’ll get has to do with the amount of bacteria, how long they are already present in your body / grow, how strong the immune system is, how well you’re able to detox and the amount of stress in your life.


  1. 1995: Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the urine and breast milk of patients with Lyme borreliosis
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA can be detected with high sensitivity (91%) by a nested PCR in urine of patients with Lyme borreliosis. In addition, this test can be a reliable marker for the efficacy of treatment:

Citing limitations of laboratory tests for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia, a study was conducted in 1995 at the University of Vienna (Austria) for the detection of Borrelia. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction testing for DNA, Borrelia was found to be present in both the URINE and breast milk of patients previously diagnosed with Lyme disease.

A dog allowed contact to experimentally infected dogs, gets Lyme disease, most likely from urine contact. Bron:

Experimental inoculation of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi. Burgess EC.

To determine if dogs could serve as a reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi, three beagles were inoculated subcutaneously (SQ) with 200 laboratory cultured spirochetes which were originally isolated from blood of a Peromyscus leucopus from Ft. McCoy, Wisc. One four month old beagle was inoculated SQ with 5 ground Ixodes dammini from Shelter Island, N.Y. which came from an area with a 50% B. burgdorferi tick infection rate; and another uninfected four month old beagle was housed loose on the floor with the tick inoculated dog. All three spirochete inoculated beagles developed IFA antibody titers to B. burgdorferi of (7 log2) to (8 log2) by day 28 post inoculation. All were apparently healthy and no spirochetes were cultured from the blood. In an attempt to exacerbate the disease two of the dogs were given 3 mg of dexamethasone on day 68 post inoculation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from blood of all these dogs on days 4 and 97 days post inoculation. The tick inoculated dog developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (10 log2) by day 14 post inoculation. The contact exposed dog also developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (7 log2) on post contact day 21 indicating contact infection. B. burgdorferi was not isolated from either of these dogs. These results indicate that, contact transmission of B. burgdorferi may occur between dogs, dogs can be subclinically infected with B. burgdorferi and have persistent infections.

An interview with James Steele DVM and Borrelia being transmitted to dogs via urine in 1976. (In 1976 wisten ze al dat honden het aan elkaar konden overdragen en dat overdracht door teken niet de enige manier is!)

A CDC officer worked on it for awhile after I left in 1972-73. He published on it and the transmission of Lyme disease to dogs and how it affected dogs. That work was completed by 1976 and hardly received any attention and now ten years later, 12 years later in 1988 at the AVMA Congress in Portland this past summer it was reported that not only dogs but many other species have Lyme disease and that ticks may not be the only route of transmission.

Research and studies, Borrelia Lyme transmission at birth:

  1. These bacteria are transmitted in a variety of ways: mother to fetus, sperm to embryo, and among families and social groups.

Evidence is also growing that certain bacteria and viruses are able to cross the placental barrier – meaning they can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Researchers now believe that the fetal gut is colonized during pregnancy.

Research indicates that L-form (!) bacteria are able to survive in sperm, so a father can pass these pathogens to his child at the moment of conception.

Other studies have revealed that other bacterial species such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also capable of crossing the placental barrier during pregnancy

These studies reveals what may be one of the main reasons behind why some people seem much more susceptible to the Th1 pathogens (L-form, intracellular and biofilm bacteria) that cause chronic disease and acquire these chronic bacterial forms at higher rates than much of the rest of the population.

If parents, grandparents and relatives with high loads of the Th1 pathogens hold and care for babies during the first weeks of life, it appears that their bacteria can easily be transmitted to the child and persist in the child’s brain and other tissues.

Spouses have a significantly greater chance of developing the same disease as their partners – a phenomenon that can best be explained if familial aggregation has an infectious cause.

From father to child via sperm: Research indicates that pathogens are able to survive in sperm, so a father can pass these bacteria to his child at the moment of conception. This may explain why, according to some anecdotal reports, females who have experienced multiple miscarriages have successful pregnancies after changing partners. Given its key role in innate immune function, the existence of the VDR in sperm also suggests that sperm are susceptible to infection. In 2012, Blomberg et al. showed that expression of the vitamin D metabolizing enzyme CYP24A1 in human sperm was an effective marker of semen quality.

  1. A number of health practitioners who specialize in Lyme disease say that they’ve seen evidence that gestational transmission is occurring.

Scientists have long suspected, however, that the spiral-shaped Lyme bacteria, Borrelia burgoferi, can be passed gestationally, since other “spirochetes” – most notably the syphilis bacteria – are known to be transmitted in the womb, causing a range of birth defects:

  1. Patient: I’ve only known for nine months that I have had Lyme disease for 31 years and passed it to my daughters during pregnancy. At this moment my eldest (16jr) lies ill with me in bed. The youngest is barely able to go to school (13 years) It is also here, as with so many others: a financial hell!
  1. “Of the more than 5,000 children I’ve treated, 240 have been born with the disease,” says Charles Ray Jones, MD. Dr. Jones, who is the world’s leading pediatric specialist on Lyme Disease, says that about 90% of his practice is comprised of patients with the disease. He also states, “Twelve children who’ve been breast-fed have subsequently developed Lyme”
  1. Studies in both human and animal models have established that B. burgdorferi can cross the placenta, presumably occurring during a period of spirochetemia.

Transplacental transmission of B. burgdorferi has been documented in studies of wild animals. The spirochetehas been cultured from the fetal tissues of a coyote and white-footed mouse, P. leucopus (Burgess etal., ’89; Anderson et al., ’87).

  1. Another study used PCR analysis to confirm the presence of B. burgdorferi in fetal tissue of the white-footed mouse and the house mouse, M. musculus (Burgess et al., 1993).
  1. Further, a newborn calf was found to have a positive blood culture for B. burgdorferi (Burgess 1988). Transplacental transmission has also been documented in a more controlled laboratory animal population.
  1. B. burgdorferi was identified by PCR in 19 of 40 pups born to female beagles that had been intradermally inoculated with the spirochete multiple times between estrus and parturition.
  1. Maternal infection with B. burgdorferi has also been associated with reproductive failure and severe fetal infection in horses (Burgess, ’89). Of seven naturally infected pregnant mares, three fetuses were aborted or resorbed, three foals died within the first week of life with culture-positive renal tissue and histologic evidence of renal pathology, and one foal was euthanized at 1 year after exhibiting chronic, progressive neurological disease over the previous 6 months. Although primary infection may have occurred after birth, this case may be an example of chronic, nonfatal in utero infection:
  1. Finding of Bb in human semen and breast milk:
  1. Schmidt. B. L.. E. Aberer, et al. (1995). “Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the urine and breast milk of patients with Lyme borreliosis.” Diaqn Microbiol Infect Dis 21(3): 121-8.
  1. Miscarriages:
  1. Other studies about  transmission from mother to baby:

Altaie. S. S., S. Mookherjee. et al. (1996). Abstract # I17 Transmission of Borrelia burqdorferi from experimentally infected mating pairs to offspring in a murine model. FDA Science Forum.

Congenital Transmission of Lyme/TBD (Aangeboren)

* MacDonald A. Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77.

* MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease. N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6.

* MacDonald A. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200.

* Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. (1985) Ann Intern Med, 103, 67-8.

* Markowitz LE, Steere AC, Benach JL, et al. Lyme disease during pregnancy. JAMA.(1986); 255(24), 3394-6.

* Lavoie PE, Lattner BP, Duray PH, Barbour AG, Johnson HC. Culture positive seronegative transplacental Lyme borreliosis infant mortality. (1987) Arthritis Rheum, 30(4), 3(Suppl):S50.

* Mikkelsen AL, Palle C. Lyme disease during pregnancy. (1987) Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 66(5), 477-8.

* Weber K; Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH. (1988) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 7:286-9.

* Carlomagno G, Luksa V, Candussi G, et al. (1988) Lyme Borrelia positive serology associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area. Acta Eur Fertil 19(5), 279-81. Abstract

* Weber K, Bratzke HJ, Neubert U, et al. (1988) Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 7(4), 286-9. Full Citation

* Nadal D, Hunziker UA, Bucher HU, et al. (1989) Infants born to mothers with antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi at delivery. Eur J Pediatr 148(5), 426-7. Abstract

* Schutzer SE, Janniger CK, Schwartz RA (1991) Lyme disease during pregnancy. Cutis 47(4), 267-8. Abstract

* Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, et al. (1993) Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169(2 Pt 1), 367-74.

* Jovanovi R, Hajri A, Cirkovi A, et al. (1993) [Lyme disease and pregnancy]. Glas Srp Akad Nauka Med (43), 169-72.

* Kumi D J, Harris O.(1995) Viability of Borrelia burgdorferi in stored semen. Br Vet J Mar-Apr;151(2): 221-4 PMID: 8920118

* Williams CL, Strobino B, Weinstein A, et al. (1995) Maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformations: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 9(3), 320-30.

* Silver H. (1997) Lyme Disease During Pregnancy. Inf Dis Clinics of N. Amer. Vol 11, No 1,

* van Holten J, Tiems J, Jongen VH (1997) Neonatal Borrelia duttoni infection: a report of three cases. Trop Doct 27(2), 115-6.

* Harvey WT, Salvato P. (2003) ‘Lyme disease’: ancient engine of an unrecognized borreliosis pandemic? Med Hypotheses. 60(5), 742-59.

* Stricker, R.B., D.H. Moore, and E.E. Winger. (2004). Clinical and immunologic evidence of transmission of Lyme disease through intimate human contact. J. Invest. Med. 52, S15

* Onk G, Acun C, Kalayci M, Cagavi F, et al. (2005) Gestational Lyme disease as a rare cause of congenital hydrocephalus. J Turkish German Gynecology Association Artemis, 6(2), 156-157.

* Jones CR, Smith H, Gibb E, Johnson L (2005) Gestational Lyme Disease: Case Studies of 102 Live Births. Lyme Times. Gestational Lyme Studies 34-36

* Hercogova J, Vanousova D (2008) Syphilis and borreliosis during pregnancy. Dermatol Ther 21(3), 205-9.

* Lakos A, Solymosi N (2010) Maternal Lyme borreliosis and pregnancy outcome. Int J Infect Dis 14(6), e494-8.

* Mylonas I (2011) Borreliosis During Pregnancy: A Risk for the Unborn Child? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11:891-8.

* Gardner T. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn, 5th edition, (1995) Chapter 11, page 447 – 528.

* Gardner T. Lyme disease. 66 Pregnancies complicates by Lyme Borreliosis. Infec Dis Fetus and Newborn Infant. Saunders, 2000.

* Kumi-Diaka J, Harris O. Br Vet J. Viability of Borrelia burgdorferi in stored semen. 1995 Mar-Apr;151(2):221-4.

MEDLINE results for: borrelia pregnancy AND human. 88 journal articles in the PubMed database BDH, July 2012, Latest Revision November 2012,

Mothers with active Lyme Disease, Treated: 14.6% of the pregnancies with sequelae, Untreated: 66.7% of the pregnancies with sequelae, Unknown as to treatment: 30.3% with sequelae.

Specific adverse outcomes included: cardiac 22.7%, neurologic 15.2%, orthopedic 12.1%, opthalmic 4.5%, genitourinary 10.6%, miscellaneous anomalies 12.1%, 2nd trimester demise 12.1%.

Highest rate of adverse outcome (72.7%) in women with infection acquired prior to or during first trimester. [Gardner T]

The issue of transplacental (mother to child in utero) transmission is raised in the LDAA’s formal response to DoH Scoping Study on Lyme disease (page 16) from Gardner T. 2001, ‘Lyme disease’ in J Remington & JO Klein (eds), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 5th edn. Philidelphia, WB Saunders; 519-641

Transfer through mammals:

Transmission of Borrelia from animals to humans could theoretically occur via exposure to their urine, blood, semen, colostrums or synovial fluid, as detailed below. (urine, bloed, sperma, biest/melk, gewrichtsvloeistof)

Evidence that Borrelia is in mammals:

There is ample evidence of Borrelia in mammals reported in Australian and overseas research:

  1. An Australian study found Borrelia spirochetes in cattle, rodents, kangaroos and bandicoots. Mackerras MJ. 1959, The haematozoa of Australian mammals. Aust J Zool. vol. 7: 105-135.
  1. An Australian study identified a new species of Borrelia (B. queenslandica), in the blood of rats. Carley JG & Pope JH. 1962, A new species of Borrelia (B. queenslandica) from Rattus Villosissimus in Queensland, Aust J Exp Biol. Vol. 40:255-262.
  1. Borrelia antibodies were identified in 22 mammalian species, including carnivores and rodents.
  1. Pokornỳ P. 1989, Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthopods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata), Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 38(1):52-60.
  1. Evidence of Borrelia found in systemically ill cats and dogs in the UK. Shaw SE, BInns SH, Birtles RJ, Day MJ, Smithson R & Kenny MJ. 2005, Molecular evidence of tick-transmitted infections in dogs and cats in the United Kingdom, Vet Rec Nov 19; 157(21): 645-648.
  1. Positive ELISA results for Borrelia antibodies in horses. Sorensen K, Neely DP, Grappell PM & Reed W. 1990, Lyme disease antibodies in thoroughbred broodmares, correlation to early pregnancy failure, Equine Vet J, 10(3): 166-168.

Proof of transfer:

  1. Mice that were infected with the bacterium Borrelia, contaminated non-infected mice. Through direct contact Borrelia bacterium was transmitted to uninfected mice! Source:
  1. The LDAA Australian patient report (2012), page 12, Table 2 and page 14, Table 4 included respondents nominating other suspected modes of transmission via animals including, urine, saliva and milk. (Urine, Speeksel, melk)
  1. Live Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in the blood and urine of white-footed mice. The authors reported that “Spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine.” Bosler EM & Schulze TL. 1986, The prevalence and significance of Borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts, Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikroboil Hyg A., Dec; 263(1-2): 40-44.
  1. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in the blood of a dog three and four weeks post infection. Cerri D, Farina R, Andreani E, Nuvoloni R, Pedrini A & Cardini G. 1994, Experimental infection of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi, Res Vet Sci, 57(2): 256-258.
  1. Horse and cow blood, cow colostrums, cow urine and cow synovial fluids found to be Borrelia burgdorferi culture positive. Burgess EC. 1998, Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Wisconsin horses and cows, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 539:235-243.

All the above investigations can be found here:

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